Kirat Rai

 History & Present:


Nepal is a very ancient country, which was ruled by many dynasties in the past. Among them, the Kirat rule is taken as a very significant one, being the longest period that extended from pre-historic to historic period. In ancient Hindu scriptures, Nepal is referred as the “Kirat Desh” or “the Land of Kirats”.

The Kirat Rai belong to the Kirati group or the Kirat confederation that includes the Rai, Limbu, Yakkha and Sunuwar. Dhimal, Hayu, Koche , Thami, Chepang, and Surel ethnic groups also consider themselves to be of Kirati descent.

The traditional homeland of the Rai extends across the Solukhumbu, the Okhaldhunga , Khotang, Bhojpur and the Udayapur districts in the northeastern hilly/mountainous region of Nepal, west of the Arun River in the Sun Koshi River watershed. Rais are also found in significant numbers in the Indian state of Sikkim and in the northern West Bengal towns of Kalimpong and Darjeeling.

According to Nepal’s 2001 census, there are 635,751 Rai in Nepal which represents 2.79% of the total population.

 Language & Script:


Kirat Rai speakes more than 32 different languages and dialects within the Tibeto-Burman languages family. The oral language is rich and ancient, as is Kirati history, but the written script remains yet to be properly organized as nearly all traces of it was destroyed by the next rulers of Nepal, The Lichhavis and almost eradicated by the Shah dynasty.

The Rai are divided into many different sub-groups – Bantawa, Chamling, Sampang, Dumi, Jerung, Kulung, Khaling, Lohorung, Mewahang, Rakhali, Thulung, Tilung, Wambule, Yakkha, Yamphu, Sunuwar, Ambule, etc. Some groups number only a few hundred members. Every sub-groups speak defferent languages.


The Kirat Rai has no their own script but use ‘Sirijonga’ script which was first invented in the late 9th century by the Sirijonga Hang. It disappeared for many years and reintroduced by Te-ongsi Sirijonga in the 17th century. This Sirijonga, who was believed to be the reincarnation of the first, was apparently martyred in 1743 for the sake of this script by the Sikkim Lamas, who tied him to a tree and flung poison arrows at him. The script was named ‘Sirijonga’ in his honour by the Limbu scholar Iman Singh Chemjong in 1925.


Religion & Culture:

Nakchong (the Rai priest)relegion

The traditional Kirati religion, apparently predating Hinduism and Buddhism, is based on ancestor-worship and the placation of ancestor spirits through elaborate rituals governed by rules called Mundum. Sumnima and Paruhang are worshipped as primordial parents. Sikatakhu Budo, Walmo Budi, and Jalpa Devi, among others, serve as Kirati deities. A major Rai holiday is the harvest festival, Nwogi, when fresh harvested foods are shared by all. The Bijuwa or Nakchhung (Dhami) or Priest plays an important role in Rai communities.

The Rai community can be described as worshippers of nature. When the wildlife begins moving to the high hills of the Himalayan ranges while the seeds sown in the fields by the tribes grow and bloom with flowers, the tribes perform Sakela puja which includes dancing and singing. The dance is called Silli and mimics the movements of birds and animals during their migration. The performance of Sakela puja is led by the Nakchong (the Rai priest) or by the head of an important family in his absence. During Sakewa puja instruments such as the dhol (or dhela), the jyamta, the bow and arrow, the chindo, the yak tail, and the cock and hen are used.

After Sakela Puja, the Rai community is banned from playing any musical instruments until after they have performed the harvest festival, udhauwli, in August and September. At this time the birds and the animals return from the high hills to the low lands and puja silli is completed.


Art and Literature:


(Miss. Mona Rai, Northeastern University Boston)

Welcome to Kirat Art and Literature page. This page provides a variety of articles on antiquities, artifacts, literature, photographs, collectibles, artists, songs and bibliographies. Kirat Rai is unique in the art and literary history of Nepal. The writers like Lain Singh Bangdel (Artist, Writer, Art Historian, Former Chancellor of the Royal Nepal Academy), Indra Bahadur Rai (Famous Writer, Honorary Ph.D., Winner of Madan puraskar and first winner of Indian Academy Prize in Nepali literature) have writing since long times.

These pages are dedicated to those Kirat Rai who writes novels, stories, short-stories, plays, poems, songs, paintings, sculptures etc. You can browse online galleries as well as read about Kirat Rai’s books, theatre-pieces and other literary works.

Kirat Rai’s main occupation is agriculture although many Rai have been recruited into military service with the Nepali army and police, and the Indian and British Gurkha regiments and Singapore Police Force. Makkar Bahadur Bantawa (Tri sakti patta 1st class, Gorkha Dakshin Bahu, Former Zonal commissioner), Bhim Prasad Rai (Brigadier General, Nepal Army), Bijaya Chandra Rai (Brigadier General, Nepal Army) are famous personalities. Moreover, now many Rais are taking graduation from University in various subjects, arts and literature.


69 Responses to Kirat Rai

  1. This is very sad rai are now following limbu scripture siri janga was the man of not too long ago who created this script.Sunuwar has it’s own lipi which is rai’s one as well.Sunuwar and rai are same but limbu not.

  2. raju rai says:

    as per my view, we have same font that i described here.

    if i m such in a wrong way, please give me a feed back.

    thanks frn Malati.

    • nobin nachiring says:

      Dear friend,
      The dialogue of limbu & rai is vast different, that why the script is also different.When I visit to Nepal, I found that the Butanese Sarnathi (rai family) had script of khumbuwan (rai). He teach the script to their children

      • Dhirajan Bantawa says:

        could u plz…post that script.really wanna a learn….wow!!khumbu have also their own script..khumbu script means lot me coz i was really dying for it.
        i hope i’ll get positive respond

      • Bokhim Prem says:

        Dear Nachring. In fact there is no difference of rai and limbu script. We, the bhutanese saranarthi also learn the same.

  3. lwwbqi says:

    G5rUHT dfiekodnnodx, [url=]njvwmmprxmnw[/url], [link=]rlqiouqbwuzr[/link],

  4. I am from Kalimpong, Darjeeling District in India and working as agricultural scientist.I am looking for (1) Khambu Lipi for preparing fonts that can be utilized in computer typing.(2) traditional dresses of Khambus for wearing it during special occasionsCan any one help me? Please.

    • Dhirajan Bantawa says:

      doc.i have found 3 scripts till now.but i don’t know which 1 to use…so confused.people here r not sure which 1 to use either-shrijunga/limbu script,khumbu script which i got it friend…hey doc i got 1 khumbub script from skkim .but to tell the truth i rejected it coz this script seems like it is base on DEVNAGARI SCRIPT..

  5. I am looking for (1) Banrawa Lipi for preparing fonts that can be utilized in computers
    (2) Khambu dresses that Khambu people use to wear for wearing ocationally

    Thank you

  6. raju rai says:

    Dr. Samuel Rai,

    Thank you very much sir for your comment. & please be informed that i dont have any idea about it for the time being. Anyway let me check whether we have the different font (Lipi) or not. If I get anything, I will post it as soon as possible.

    Keep on touch.

  7. Dear Rai kirat brithers and sisters
    I am a Kulung Rai, so that I would like to Protect my Kulung Language, if there any songs in kulung, please send me the email bsrai56@rediff,com

  8. raju rai says:

    not yet found bro! anyway i will send it to you once i got it.

  9. Dear Sri Raju;


    Thank you for your response.
    I will be in touch with you. We have a small group of Khambus here trying to save our culture and language.

    I will keep informing you all if anything comes up.

    With regards,


    Samuel Rai

  10. nobin nachiring says:

    Dear friends
    As we are from kirat family. It is very important that we should follow our rule & regulation. We couldn’t forget our culture & tradition. We should speak our own Dialogue at home & around to member of the family & society. Though we the rai family has divided by our own dialogue but the culture as I seen is not so different. We follow our deu (three stone) commonly. About our script-I think we had our own script but it hides somewhere. Lets find and give knowledge of our culture & tradition to our coming generation.

  11. Uddhav says:

    Dear Raju and all

    Good to visit your site and delighted on your communication. I was googling and found out your site. Please keep it up. I teach Anthropology in TU Kirtipur, Nepal. Have you visited by the way? If not please do that helps to update you to some extent.


  12. sameer says:

    thanks friend for bringing our history culture,tradition and language to this mordern period such persons like you r helping to gain our kirat spirt back and thanks.
    yr friend kirant
    sameer rai kulung

  13. Hello, it really interesting, thanks

  14. sewa
    there is 1 question i would like to ask all the kirat not just we rai(khambu).we often say that we are not the hindu and the hinduism was forsed upon us by the rulers. But the kirateshowr shiva is regarded as the supreme god by all of us. and sumneema and paruhang is also called as the shiva parvati. what is this i really cant understand.

  15. raju rai says:


    I love your question, but sorry to say that i could not answer for it. If I get any update, i will surely post it for you.

    Anyway, thanks for your lovely comment. Just keep veiw it always.


    किराती लिपिको सबै word छैन ? येदि छ भने कृपया publish गर्नु होला बिन्ति छ किनकी it very improtent 4 us.

  17. vim says:


  18. पारस राई says:

    साथीको सानो प्रायस धेरैको आगी मात्र नभएर, हामी किरात हरु को लागी राम्रो काम भएको छ त्यस्का लागी मुरी मुरी जधौ…
    लिपी को बारेमा थप जानकारी चाहियो भने मलाई दु:ख दिन गाह्रो नमान्नु होला है…

  19. shyam kulung rai says:

    के तपाईं रु,१५ हाजारले अजिबन सेवा र सुबिधाहारु पाउन र दिना चाहनु हुन्छ? के तपाईंले आफ्नो देशलाई केही सेवा र योगदान पुर्या उनु भाको छ? के तपाईं आफ्नो देशका बिधुवा बिधुवीहरुको आँशू पुछ्नु भाको छ? र आफु र आफ्नो परिवारको पनि आँशू पुछ्न चाहनु हुन्छ? के तपाईं मरेर जाँदा पनि आफ्नो परिवारको निम्ती केही राहात दिएर जाना चाहनु हुन्छ? के तपाईं र तपाईंको परिवारको जिबन हजार बाट लाखौं म परिवर्तन गर्न चाहनु हुन्छ? के तपाईं काम बिहिन हुनुहुन्छ? के तपाईं पनि नेटवर्किङ बिजिनेस गर्न चाहनु हुन्छ? आउनुस् म तपाईंलाई पुरा पाक्का सिकाइ दिने छु ओनलाइमा माइलमा संपर्क गर्न सक्नु

  20. krishna rai says:

    dear peoples i’m thuloung rai living in bangkok.i like rai peoples to meet on line

  21. rajan rai...from bhutan says:

    hami rai,limbu ho ya sunuwar sabai kiranti haun. teysailey hamu ek arka lai ungali kina uthaw ney?. sabai rai, limbu, sunuwar ekta bhayera/mileyra aafnu sanskriti itihas ko khoj garaun ani mani laun…hei..

    • chandan says:

      Sathi Ranjan le dherai ramari kura rakhnu bhayo. Hami sabai milera aaphno sanskriti lai khujnu ani sachnu parne ho.

    • bhim subba neyong says:


      ma yati jannu lai sarei ichchuk original ma kirati bhitra paroe jati va k k thori chan..plz mero rply grnu hol

  22. raju rai says:

    @Krishna Rai, I like ur spirit……….I wish you will fine more friends from Kirati Group……..
    @Rajan Rai, tapaile dherai ramro kura garnu bhayo……………tar mero bichar ma rai, limbu ra sunuwar yi tinai jaatiharu kiratima nai parchha jasto lagchha…..tyahi pani yahako sallah ra sujhabko lagi apekshaa gardachhu……

  23. rajan rai...from bhutan says:

    I know very well that rai, limbu & sunuwar are kirantis.that’s why I wrote basically in reply to Vim & Malati Khambu’s comments.
    Nirajan Mangpahang jiu, kiratis and their supreme Creator/God Parohang-Sumnima was already there before hindu/vedic religion came to india.later they gave our kirateshowr parohang the name Shiva.only Kirantis are the direct descendants of Sumnima-Parohang.The same Parohang is also worshiped as Buddhahang Diva or Shingahang Diva by some khambus.

  24. asewaro i would like to ask you a little bit? all our kirati are same only name like limbu rai yakkha sunuwar etc what is the deffrent ? ?

  25. Balaram Rai says:

    Hello there, I am looking for Khambus traditional dress, like Pagari; Tagaba and Mekhli. Please send me the photograps. So that we can wear them on occasions like Skewa and Skela festivals. Thanks.

  26. ok thx @Rajan g i got to know about our religion…thank u very much

    • yongya says:

      my view
      i think the script created by sirijonga is meant
      for kirat religion and not for any rai and limbu
      because all rai and limbus are kirati.

      • nirajan mangpahang says:

        have seen more then 3 kirat script . kun chai hami le use garda ramro hun 6 ???

  27. raju rai says:

    @Balram Rai,

    I m really apologize to you for delay to answer for your inquiry. For the time being, I m not having any information regarding your inquiry or request, but I will update once I find it.

    Thank you very much for your visit……………….keep on always..

  28. मुन्धुम् र भौतिकवादी दृष्टिकोण।
    मुन्धुम् संसारको सृष्टि,मानव जगतको भलो र प्रगति गर्ने विषय वा सार संक्षेप नैं वास्तविक मुन्धुमको सारतत्व हो। मुन्धुम् शब्दको उत्पति मुन–हल्लीनु थुम+दुम–जोदिनु मुन्दुम–मुन्धुम् हुन्छ। अथवा हल्लीरहने शति्कशाली तत्व जोडिएर कुनै अर्थ लाग्ने वस्तु वा सिर्जना हुने शब्दको नाम नै मुन्धुम् हो। मुन्धुमको अर्थ खाम्बोङबा लुङबोङबा अथवा सावा येत्हाङहरुको प्राचीन भाषा,माङ्वाणी (माङ इङघङ) देव भाषा जो मुहिगुम् अङसी,देवअङसीहरुको वाणी वा मौखिक शास्त्रादीहरुलाइ मुन्धुम् मानिएको छ। मुन्धुमभित्र थकसाप मुन्धुम्(लिखित शास्त्र) पेसाप मुन्धुम्(टिप्पणी शास्त्र) थुङसाप मुन्धुम् (मौखिक शास्त्र―श्रुति परम्परा) सक्सक् मुन्धुम् (कागज शास्त्र) र साम्यो मुन्धुम् (धर्म शास्त्र) यी शास्त्रहरुलाई समग्रमा साम्जिक वा चाम्जिक मुन्धुम् मानिएको छ। श्रुति कथा,आख्यान,लोक साहित्य र गाथाहरुको समष्टीरुप नै मून्धुमको आधार हो। थुङसाप मुन्धुम् (श्रृति शास्त्र) साकमुरा वादेम्मा मुन्धुम् अनुसार मुजिङना खेयङ्ना (इश्वररुपि स्त्रीरुप) मस्त जवानी भइ यौनतृष्णाले छट्पटिन्दा सुइसुइला खेल्दै रुखमाथि खुट्टा हल्लाएर हावा खाइ बस्दा (कालो बायु–इश्वर–माङ्को विर्य) हावाको माध्यमले मुजिङना खेयङ्नाको योनीमा प्रवेशगरि गर्भधारण भइ जन्मेका युकपुङ्गेन् सावाङगेम्बा नै प्रथम मानव पुत्र मानिन्छ।१ अर्थात शास्त्रीय मुन्धुमी भाषाले भन्छ कि सुनले बनाउँदा पनि मान्छे बनेन्,चाँदिले बनाउँदा पनि मान्छे बनेन अर्को शब्दमा तत्वले जीवन बनेन्। बाजेबाट बाबु आयो,बाबुबाट छोरा आयो,छोराबाट नाति आयो अर्थात जीवन बन्नलाइ जीवन नैं चाहिन्छ। यसलाइ अग्रेजीमा law or theory of Biogenesis भनिन्छ। मुन्धुम् अनुसार जीवाङ्श भनेको सिमिक्ला खाप्पु,वहिचेल्लेक्ना,वादुम्–पक्वा वा आकाशे पानी जो ढुङ्गाको खोपिल्टो वा कुनै पानी जम्ने ठाँउमा जम्मा भई त्यो पानीमा आवश्यक जीवांशहरु जम्मा हुन गई तागेरानिङ्वाफु माङको आशीर्वादले मात्र मानिसको सृष्टि भयो। यसरी मानिस वा जीवको उत्पति हुने सिद्धान्तलाइ नै मुन्धुमले अघि सारेको छ। मुन्धुममा थुप्रै माङहरु उत्पन्न भई विभिन्न सिर्जनाहरु गरेको मुन्धुम् वर्णन गर्दछ। तर बुझनु पर्ने कुरा के हो भने समय क्रम अनुसार ब्रामण्ड र पृथ्वीमा भएका सर्म्पूण वस्तुहरु परिवर्तन हुँदै जाने निश्चित अवस्थालाई श्रुति परम्परामा माङ (इश्वर) को उपस्थिति मानिएको छ। डार्विनको विकासवादी सिद्धान्त अनुसार बाँदरले मानिसको रुप लिन पुगेको हो। त्यो वैज्ञानिक तथ्यलाइ स्वीर्कानै पर्छ। तर अब संसारका बाँदरहरु बाँदर नै रहि रहन्छन्। बाँदरबाट मान्छे बन्ने वातावरणको परिवर्तन क्रम गुज्री सकेको छ। यो वैज्ञानिक तथ्यलाइ स्वीकार गर्दछौ भने थो खाम्छी छिरीरो खाम्लन्दी साःमा (साःमेन्छा) लुङछी छिरीग लुङबोङ्बा साःमा,मेन्छाम तुम्बुमा याप्मी तुम्बुमा,मुजिङनामारो खेयङनामाआः,थाप्साङ लन्देआङ लदेन लन्देआङ,थो फक्ताङलुङ्मेत्थो पेन्बेन वामेत्थो,चुक्मु नेन्छीङ्ङाङ् हिङमु नेन्छीङ्ङाङ्,चुक्मु लोरेल्य हिङमु लोरेल्य,भन्ने शास्त्रीय मुन्धुमी काब्यलाई पनि स्वीर्कानै पर्ने हुन्छ। जब फक्ताङ्लुङ पेन्बेन्लुङमा माङजिरी माङ्लःदा (माङगन तेम्बे) तेनमा ढुङ्गा माटो र हावा पानी द्धारा जन्म भएकी मुजिङना खेयङना मस्त जवानी हुन्छिन् अनि मुन्धुमी भाषामा यसरी गर्भधारण हुन पुग्छिन्।२
    लक्लेलक लकले पेलीरक पान्लो थो सिन्युक् पिबारो मुदेन पिबारो थो सुरावेत तेम्बे काम्फोना तेम्बे थोसु इङबेल्लो खाङला इङबेन्न् योसु इङबारो सुरा इङबेन्न् लक्लेलक लकले पेली र पारे यो साङगफे कफे नाङवामा चङधो मुजिङनामाग खेयङनामाग कुजेक् …. सिसा केरेआङ् मेन्छीन् केःरेआङ साम्मिःत् मुक्तेआङ केजङ् मुक्तेल्ले यो साङगफे कफे नावामा चङधो लिङगफे कफे नावामा चङधो केरुङ तोसेल्ले कुहिम तोसेल्ले साम्मिःत्रक मुक्ते केजङरक मुक्ते साम्मिःत्ले मुतुःकेजङ्ले मुत्तुआङ मुजिङनामाग खेयङनामाग आबुरक लाःरुरो सारुङरक लाःरुरो।३
    मुन्धुममा यसरी सर्वप्रथम मानवको गर्भधारण हिमालमा भएको छ। यता रुसी आँखा अनुसंन्धानकर्ता एवं वैज्ञानिक इरस्ट मोल्डाशेभको इन्टरनेशनल एकेडेमी अफ साइन्स युन (१९९६) द्धारा प्रकाशित इन्टरनेशनल एक्सपेडिसन फर हूमानिटी ओरिएन्टल रिसर्च(International expedition for oriental research)पुस्तकमा मानव जातिको उत्पति हिमाली श्रृङखला (फक्ताङलुङ) र मानसरोवर छेउछाउ भएको उल्लेख गरिएको छ। त्यहाँ उत्पति भएका मानवहरु विकसित अवस्थामा पुगेर चारतिर लागेका थिए। मुन्धुममा उल्लेख गरिएको संसारको सृष्टिवारे चाख लाग्दो र वैज्ञानिक दृष्टिकोणसंग मेलखाने धेरै शास्त्रिय मुन्धुमी भाषाहरुको प्रयोग भएको पाइन्छ। युङ्पुङगेन सावाङगेम्बा सिकार गर्न फङदुरा (काँस) चङधो वेक्तुरा चङधो उकालो लाग्छन्। मुन्धुम् अनुसार उस बेलाको माङ्गन तेम्बे (माङहरुको घुमफिर गर्ने ठाउँ वा समथल मैदान,वर्तमान फक्ताङ्लुङ हिमाल वरिपरि) तिर उकालो लागेको ब्याख्या भएबाट के बुझन्छ भने अहिले उभिएका पहाड र हिमालहरु अग्लिने क्रम जारी थियो। अहिले जस्तो विशाल हिमाल पर्बत भएर अग्लि सकेको थिएन् र नदी किनारतिर काँशका गाँजहरु फुलेको थियो। भूगर्भशास्त्रीहरुको मत अनुसार हिमाल भूखण्डको निर्माण आजभन्दा करिब साढे १२ करोड बर्ष अगाडी उत्तरको लुरेसिया र दक्षिणको गोण्डवाना ल्याण्डको रुपमा बाँडिएका जमिनका केवल दुईओटा ठूला भूखण्डहरु साढे ६ करोड बर्ष अगाडी आएर वर्तमानका विभिन्न द्धीपहरुमा बाँडिनु अगाडी वर्तमान नेपालको भूभाग टेथिस सागरको गर्भभित्र लुकेको थियो। (मेहरी दत्ता १९८५: १५–१७)। वर्तमानको दक्षिण एसियाली उपमहाद्धीप सरिसृपहरुको युग अथवा मध्य जीवकल्प(Mesozoic)संम्म अफ्रिकी महादेशसंग जोडिएको थियो। पछि आएको भौगोलिक हलचलमा समुन्द्रको दक्षिणी पिध पेलिने तर उत्तरको तिब्बती ढालले सर्न नदिने हुँदा समुन्द्र सतह चुलिन्दै गएको थियो। यो परिवर्तनको लहरमा कतिपय जमिनका उच्च भू–भागहरु पानी भित्र डुब्न पुगे र कतिपय सागर भित्रका भू–भागहरु उच्च भूमि वा पहाडका रुपमा उठ्न पुगे। यहि हलचलकै क्रममा महाद्धिपीय विस्थापनका कारण अफ्रिकासंग जोडिएको भू–भाग समुन्द्रमा धस्न गयो र उत्तरतर्फ भएको टेथिस सागरको भू–भाग माथि उठ्न गई चुरे,महाभारत र कतिपय उच्च पहाडी भू–भागको निर्माण हुन पुग्यो। तिब्बतीय पठारतिर विशाल ढिक्के नुन खानी हुनुलाई त्यहि समुन्द्रको नुनपानीलाई कारण मानिएको छ। यी वैज्ञानिक तत्थ्य अनुसार आज देखिएका पहाड,हिमालहरु एकै पल्ट निर्माण भएका थिएनन्। समुन्द्री टेथिस अग्लो हुने क्रमसंगै त्यहाँ भएका एक कोषिय जीवहरु पनि पानीको सतहमा आएका थिए। डार्बिनको विकासवादी सिद्धान्त अनुसार अमिवाबाट जीवहरु र मानव संम्मको विकास भएको हो। यो विकास हुने क्रम पहाड र हिमालको अग्लाईसगै एकै साथ हुँदै गयो। मून्धुमले पनि यहि विकासवादी सिद्धान्तकै आधारमा ब्राम्हाण्ड र संसारको सृष्टि जीवहरुको उत्पति र फक्ताङलुङमा (कुम्भकर्ण हिमालमा) ढुङ्गा माटोद्धारा मुजिङ्ना खेयङनाको जन्म भएको थियो। जीवहरुको उत्पति र विकास हुने क्रम भई सकेर पनि अहिले देखिएका पहाड र हिमालहरु भने क्रमश अग्लिन्दै जाँदा अहिलेको अवस्थामा पुगेको हो। अफ्रिकामा पाइएको “लुसि” भनिने मानव भग्नावशेषलाइ वर्तमान मानवको पहिलो पुर्खा भनेर पश्चिमी अनुसन्धानकर्ताहरुको दाबी रहे पनि “बहुमत मानवशाश्त्रीहरु एसिया क्षेत्र नै मानव उत्पति स्थल हुनु पर्छ” भन्ने निर्क्योलमा एकमत छन्। हिन्दु धर्मशास्त्रले मानव उत्पति स्थल हिमालयतिर भएको सङ्केत गर्दछ।४ यहि सङ्केतलाई मुन्धुमले विस्तृत रुपमा वर्णन गरेको छ। इतिहास र संस्कृतिविद् भुवनलाल प्रधान अनुसार “एक करोड बर्ष भन्दा अगाडि नै हिमाली भेगको फेदीमा प्रागमानवको प्रादुर्भाब भईसकेको थियो। मुन्धुम् भित्रको यथार्थ नै मिथ हो। मिथकमा वर्णन भएका खाम्जिरी खाम्बोङ्साहरु यहि फक्ताङ्लुङ पेन्बेनलुङ वरिपरी उत्पति भएका तागेरा निङ्वाफु माङका संन्तानहरु हुन् जो वास्तविक (Indigenous) हुन। याक्थुङ लाजे लिम्बूवान नाममा फेरिनु अघि याक्थुङ लाजेमा सावायेत्हाङ आठ राजाका संन्तानहरुले राज्य गर्दै थिए। उनिहरुको एउटा विशेषता के थियो भने हरेक देव देवी र प्रतिष्ठित ब्याति्कहरुको नाम “य” वर्णबाटै राखिएको हुन्थ्यो। जस्तै याक्थुङबा,येहाङ,युक्पुङगेन,यकलब्यहाङ,येबा,यलम्बाहाङ,युमा,येमा आदी। सम्भवतःउनै सावायेत्हाङका संन्तान दर संन्तानहरु नै मुजिङना खेयङनाका सन्तानहरु हुन। तिनै सु:सुवेङ ला:लावेङ वा सु:सुवालिSलिम(ढुङ्गा माटोसंगै जन्मिएका मुलबासी) याक्थुङबाहरुलाई नैं आगन्तुक शासकहरुले “सुSसुवा लिSमलिम” भन्दा भन्दै लिम्बू भनिएको हुन सक्ने सम्भाब्यतालाई इतिहासकारहरुले स्वीकारेका छन्। तिनै सावायेत्हाङका संन्तानहरुले उक्त मुन्धुम् श्रुति परम्परामा आधारित शास्त्रिय ऐतिहासिक काब्यको थालनी गरेका थिए। येहाङ्को त्यो संसारको सृष्टि,मानव उत्पति कथा,तथा मानव विकास र धार्मिक एवं सांस्कृतिक श्रृति परम्परालाई एक पुस्ताबाट अर्को पुस्तामा सार्दै ल्याइ रहेका थिए,सर्दै आएको छ। मुन्धुम्ले वर्णन गरे झैं हिमालमा मानवको उत्पति र विकासबारे हिमालमा पाइएका शालीग्राम र नवपाषणकालीन ढुङ्गाका हतियारहरु ताप्लेजुङ,इलाम,झापा,सुनसरी,मोरङ,उदयपुर,दोलखा,मुस्ताङ,रामेछाप,सुर्खेत,काभ्रेपलाञ्चोक,ललीतपुर,तनहुँ,कास्की,पाल्पा,दाङदेउखुरी,मकवान र नवलपरासी आदि स्थानमा पाइएका छन्। यी हतियारहरुले के सङकेत गदर्छ भने यिनै हिमाल पहाडको आसपास मानवको उत्पति भई नवपाषणकालीन युगमा यी स्थानहरुमा मानिसहरुको ब्यापक वसोवास भइ सकेको थियो। तर गाउँघरमा आफ्ना हजारौं बर्ष अघिका पुर्खाका ढुङ्गे हात हतियारहरु नचिनेर बज्र ढुङ्गा (सेरिलुङ) लाई पूजा गर्ने साथै औषधीको रुपमा प्रयोग गर्ने चलन रहेको छ। भू–गर्भशास्त्रीहरुको मत अनुसार नेपालका अधिकांस उपत्यकाहरु तलाउका रुपमा थिए। आज भन्दा २ लाख बर्ष अगाडी धाद्रा लागी पानी निस्किएर गएको अनुमान गरिएको छ। तिनै समुन्द्रको टेथिस अग्लिएर उपत्यका बनि पानी निस्के पछि बनेको समतल मैदानहरुलाइ मुन्धुममा तेम्बे (समथल,मैदान) शब्दले पुकारिएको छ। मुन्धुममा वर्णन भएका केहि तेम्बेहरुको नाम यस प्रकार छन्। मुरिङला खारिङला तेम्बे,साङ्गरक नु,गरक तेम्बे,चेन्जेनलुङ तेम्बे,चिङलिङ हारा (हडा) तेम्बे,काप्लिङ तेम्बे,मिनुताखोङ तेम्बे,तेल्लेङ तेम्बे,मुना तेम्बे,नाखोङलुङ तेम्बे,पुङलिङ तेम्बे,फेसिङ तेम्बे, इवा हडा तेम्बे,साघोङलुङ तेम्बे खङफोना तेम्बे,माङ्गन् तेम्बे,सुरावेत तेम्बे,खोन्दोप्ला तेम्बे,साजारा तेम्बे,तुङसाबा तेम्बे,लिङघायक तेम्बे जस्ता कैयौं तेम्बेहरुको वर्णन भएका छन। यी वर्णन भएका मुन्धुमका तेम्बेहरुमा मानव उत्पति र सभ्यताको विकास भएको विश्वास गरिन्छ। यसरी मुन्धुम् र भौतिकवादी तत्थ्यमा तारतम्य मिल्नु संयोग मात्र नभई मुन्धुमले वर्णन गरेका भौतिकवादी शास्त्रहरुलाई केलाउँदै जाँन सके अलङ्कारीक मुन्धुमी भाषाको दृष्टिकोण पाठकहरु सामु स्पष्ट हुँदै जानेछ।
    शन्दर्भ सूची :-१.चन्द्र कुमार सेर्मा “पापोहाङ”–किराँत धर्म प्रश्नोउत्तर माला भाग – १ २.जसराज पन्धाक लिम्बू–लिम्बू जनजाति जीवन पछिको जीवन धारण तथा अन्त्यष्टि अनुष्ठानहरु। ३.लिङदेनफुङ सराही साम्बा हाङयम्बु भिम बहादुर लिबाङ र येजिरी येफःया हाङयम्बु बृषबहादुर वनेम–मुजोक्:क्लुङ खाजोक्:क्लुङ मुन्धुम्। ४.निलम शेखर अधिकारी– नेपाल जातिय आन्दोलन।

  29. uttam rai says:

    ha fan hami kirati haru ko culture li safe garu.

  30. Dev Khambu says:

    किरात लिपिको प्रसंगमा मेरो व्यक्तिगत विचार:
    अहिले उपयोग गरेको श्रीजंगा लिपि पछि मात्र चलन चल्तीमा अहेको हो ! हामीहरुको भाषा संस्कृतसंग सबन्धित नभएकोले हाम्रो लिपिमा क, ख, ग , घ (देव नगरी मा जस्तै ) नहुनुपर्ने जस्तो लाग्छ !

  31. Dhirajan Bantawa says:

    KHUMBU SCRIPT is what we need to save our language and culture as well.

  32. chandra pks sunuwar says:

    Dear all kirants,
    First of all i have great appeal on you guys.This is historical moment to start our historical kirant new year the yele sambat.However still 2 more months to go this time i want to make you aware for all kirantis of the world.Their new year is just about to come and histry of nepal about to change and re-write.Hopefully every single kiratas of world participate in this forth coming new year and make success.Our great god king yalambar who had deep sleep in his great graveyard now time to open CHINDO and spray with the milet beer or KODOKA JAND.This is responsibility of every kiranti to make success of our kiranti new year and make new year of nepal for every body in near future.I have advance greeting regarding kirant yele sambat for everybody please accept it in advace.
    May the dawning of this kiranti New Year, fill your heart with new hopes, open up new horizons and bring for you promises of brighter tomorrows.
    new are the hopes and the aspirations, new is the resolution, new are the spirits and forever my warm wishes are for all kirantis.
    We will open the book of kiranti era. Its pages are blank. We are going to put words on them ourselves.
    The book is called Opportunity of all kirantis of kirant deshe nepal and its first chapter is The kirant yele sambat.
    Think the Old hindu Year Bikram sambat has gone. Let the dead past bury its own dead. The kiranti New Year has taken possession of the clock of time.
    All kiranti hail the duties and possibilities of the forth coming days.
    May you promising and fullfilling legedary kirant New Year the yele sambat 5071
    For your brief knowledge regarding kirant yele sambat.Have take look which is as follows,
    The Yele Sambat
    Yele sambat is kiranti new year and it used to celebrate in the time of maghe siri panchami or sukla panchami.This new year used to celebrate since unknown ancient time by kiranti people as new year and considered this day as very lucky,Prosperouse and happy day for all kirantis.This yele name is coming from king yalamber who officially declared this day as new year for kiranti people so from his name this sambat or year is called yele sambat.This siri panchami or sukla panchami was so precious day for kiranti people when the yalamber defeated the gopal dynasty king Bhuvansingh in nepal and started kiranti era this was day of siri panchami.Altogether, there were 29 kings of this dynasty who ruled over Nepal for about 1225 years But according to kirant bansawali record there is 34 kiranti king who ruled the Nepal .
    According to the chronicle (Bansawali) of Kirkpatrick, Kiratas ruled over Nepal from about 900 B.C. to 300 A.D. During this long period, altogether 29 Kirat Kings ruled over the country’.yalamber was such mighty and legendary kirant king who led the kirata in legendary kuruchetra war of Mahavarata. Kirant people considered him as god king as incarnation of mahadeva so he is called AKASH VAIRAB AS WELL. Another form of lord Siva or lord of terror. The temple, a three storey structure now stands in the busy square of Indra Chowk is the temple of AKASH VAIRAB or temple of legendary kirant king yalamber.The twenty-nine Kings were : 1.Yalambar 2.Pari 3. Skandhar 4.Balamba 5.Hriti 6.Humati 7.Jitedasti 8.Galinja 9.Oysgja 10.Suyarma 11.Papa 12.Bunka 13.Swawnanda 14.Sthunko 15.Jinghri 16.nane 17.luka 18.Thor 19.Thoko 20.Verma 21.Guja 21.Guja 22.Pushkar 23.kKeshu 24.Suja 25.Sansa 26.Gunam 27.Khimbu 28.Patuka 29.Gasti
    The last King of the Kirant dynasty was Gasti. He proved to be a weak ruler and was overthrown by the Sombanshi ruler Nimisha. It brought to the end of the powerful Kirant dynasty.When they defeated by lichabi king Again they Regrouped and formed the another kirant kingdom in banepa that day was maghe siri panchami or sukla pagnchami.Their new kirant kingdom was started from Sanga Bhanjyang hill Kathmandu valley to Sikkim in east and remain as hostile power for the lichavi.After Twenty years of ruling in banepa as kiranti kingdom Later this kingdom was divided into 3 small kingdom they were called Wallo kirant, majh kirant and pallo kirant with the different kings. Among them wallo kirant had boarder from sanga bhanjyang from west to dudh koshi in east.Friest king of wallo kirant was king Binicha.He was such mighty king and had power of wishful death only. according to myth he had hidden Tupi{long hair in middle of the head} without cutting this he wouldn’t die this was his secrecy and famous for magic and art of warfare. According to sunuwar kirant chronicle he used to form this wallo kirant in the time of maghe siri panchami or sukla panchami another form of yele sambat in Bhuji kot gaun in ramechap district so he declared that day is new year as it is like before. This new year used to celebrate like chandi beating dhole,chyamta and sacrificing many animals and eating, drinking making addition they used to do stick fighting, sword fighting khukuri fighting and game of archery. This kind of game was so dangerous could easily break head and vulnerable to die as well but this was kiranti tradition and game of warrior race so nothing to do with this festival. Once passer-by two saints yogi named Kalbhairung and kal narsing seen this wallo kiranti new year and so much horrified. They Try to teach sunuwar this festival need to avoid because they seen many warrior bleeding and they took sword from them and brought In Hanuman Dhoka in Kathmandu. In addition all kirant young lad and lady get together and make appointment for marriage if they like each other. Pierced the ear for young people to wear rings, cut the hair, get together the relatives, Build new houses, To give new clothes this is tradition in sunuwar.There is say for kiranti people no need to see Sahit{good day} for start life journey. This festival was completely banned after conquest of gorkha darwar but still remain in the time of rana government illegally but after rana government this festival is completely banned all sort of kiranti documents were burned and destroy which the office used to call Jatiya nasta bivag {gopal Gurung} but still old wallo kiranti sunuwar used to practice and celebrate this new year in time of maghe siri panchami.So recently Friest of all wallo kiranti sunuwar start to celebrate this new year on 2052 Bikram sambat nepalese new years.More then 15 years ago officially from sunuwar welfare society. Now limbu organisation recognise this new year as kiranti new year and start to follow sunuwar’s.This is not only by sunuwar and limbu but we all kiranti must recognise our festival and revive our ancient pride. Nepal is kirant Deshe and ridiculously we are not celebrating our kirant festival and religion. We are such rich in historically, culturally and traditionally but we seems losing our all faith. This festival is not only lucky for kiranti but many other people as well. In the time of siri panchami lord Buddha used to born so all Buddhist celebrate Buddha jayanti{Buddha day} who was one of the greatest kirata scholar in past who gave Nirvana for all human being. He was the great teachers of all human race. Same day Chinese people have Chinese new year which is called chunche there is strong connection with Chinese new year chunche and yele sambat. yele sambat and chunche might be same in past because kirata people were originated in Hunan province of china 6000 BC.In this siri panchami Hindu goddess saraswati puja{worship}is done. She is the goddess of learning. She used to be kiranti goddess Vedic people just forcefully trying to bring in Hindu fold.Sarswati in the Vedas was goddess of wealth, fruits and well being not as goddess of learning and intelligence. Sarswati today is clothed with white colour which had derived from Khuluma of Tripuri kiranti people who is goddess of cotton and learning as she teaches us to weave and design the clothes. Khuluma is considered white colour as she for cotton. It clearly shows goddess of learning saraswati is our kiranti god So value of siri panchami or sukla panchami is something beyond our imagination for kiranti people. The full moon has different place for all living being. This is day of god,goddest,legendary story of wolf. All living being are happy to see full moon.Kiranti people have myth and belief that day all SIME,BHUME,NAG AND NAGINI{Goddess of earth, goddess of water and serpent king} They all come out on Earth to breath and see the human activity and for blessing if they worship and appease them. This day people have belief that day naga king or serpent god change him as human form so come in house disguising as yogi and blessed people so some people worship naga as well.Kiranti sunuwar has belief this day is important and it’s called KHARO BAR OR KHARO DIN so they have belief, that night 7 brother BANESKHANDI{JUNGLE GOD} come to visit every GOTH{HUT}to bless animal. There is folk lore that day kiranteswore mahadeva and kirantni parbati take bath in high Himalayan holy lake like JHATA POKHARI,NIRMAL POKHARI,BHUT POKHARI,PANCH POKHARI,GOSAI KUNDA,TILICHO TAL,CHYO ROLPA,HALESWARI,KAILASH MAN SAROWAR TAL AND other many more. For novelist, story writer, poem writer and lovers this full moon is something different. According to science sun start to move from south pole to north pole so this new year the day of siri panchami is really really essential. All this kind of worship used to do in kiranti new year day the yele sambat.This yele sambat which we celebrating today in maghe siri panchami created confused for kiranti people who doesn’t have sufficient historical knowledge about this and misunderstood as MAGHE SAKRANTI but this is not maghe sakranti this is yele sambat kiranti new year which we celebrate in maghe siri panchmi.Because of time and difficulty of fixing the time some kiranti organisation start to celebrate in time of magh 1 gate but it has to be in time of maghe siri panchami or sukla panchami or basanta panchami.Kirata race were such ancient and used to tussle with god,goddest and demon in their daily life. They were only not ancient but also had very developed civilization like Indus civilization and Mohenjo-Daro civilization. Ancient Indian civilization is civilization of kirata.This great civilization was situated in north east Himalayan range of Mahavarata.According to S.k chattarji north eastern kiranti civilization was key civilization of ancient India. They were the supreme power in that era. If you see the 10000 BC Scientific human evolution film then you can find out how civilize we kiranti were in past. When southern Chinese people used to cultivate paddy and living with happy civilize life that time how westerner were struggling for resources and living in cave like jungle man. Due to dynamic of time they start to loose their colony,civilization,culture,tradition one after another but now this is our duty to restore ancestral pride and their spirit.we must revive our own culture rather than to follow someone’s religion, culture and tradition so This is the time for all kiranti to celebrate our own legendary new year the yele sambat.
    By Chandra Prakash Sunuwar
    Dhobighat, Lalitpur, Kathmandu

  33. bikram rai (sampang) says:

    Nice work..keep it up!!

  34. Santa Bir yongya(limbu) says:

    mona friend ?
    please can u email me chandra parsad yongya from nepal’s address/or websit in my email kindly

  35. Santa Bir yongya(limbu) says:

    please it will be ok if u could give his email address

  36. Chandra Rai "manab" says:

    Dear Raju-ji and Other Kirati Bandhuharu,

    Raju-ji ko yo blog ra prayas lai tarif garchhu! Tapai ko afno byaktigat ra “Mero Paila” le pragati gardai jawos, yehi mero hardik kamana chha!!

    Dear Kirati Bandhuharu,

    Tapai haru jastai malai pani “Kirat” dharma, riti riwaj, chaad parva, vesh vusha aadi bare janne ra tyaslai aavyaas (practice) gardai laijane chahana chha! Yes sambandhi aafno gyan, bichar rakhera prasta paridinu hune bandhu haru lai muri muri dhanyabad! Yo yeuta samuhik prayash ho, tyesaile ja-jasle naya kura haru paiyo tyo-tyasle sharing gardai jau!!

    Jaha samma kirati lipi ani bhasa/sansakriti/vesh-vusha ko kura chha, mero ra tero, limbu ra rai, rai ma pani kun rai(?) bhandai gaiyo bhane – uhi aruharule janeko ra laagu gareko ani hamra pita purkha le ra hamile nachetiyeko “DIVIDE and RULE” kai vadkhaal ma parinchha. Naya naya SATYA/GYAAN khojna prayaas garau, tyo napainjel PURANO SATYA/GYAAN lai pani mandai jau!!


    Chandra Rai “manab”
    Morang, Nepal
    Now in New Zealand

  37. Basant Rai says:

    kasailai kirat rai kasari lekhne hamro rai scriptma thaha cha bhane kripaya share gardinus hola

  38. Prya Khamu Mitra avam Daju-bhai, Kirati Khamboharu afnu Thar pichheko bhasa bhayer bibhjan bhayeko chha jast lagchha malai. Ke hamile autai bhasa bolna sakdainau?? Kiati khambukohar afno samparka sthapit garne kunai webside chha? kripaya mali yas bisaya jankari dinuhola.

    Sabailai mero Subhakamana….

    Dr. Bharat Rai
    Mizoram, India.

  39. sheevraj says:

    ma kirati language sikna chahanchhu kirati vasa kun websit ma vetna sakinchha kripaya vanidinu hola

  40. samrai says:

    i want to know about the rai

    • Raju Rai says:

      I have tried to put more information about our caste. So you can get some information from my website too……

  41. Raju Rai says:

    I have tried to put more information about our caste. So you can get some information from my website too……

  42. MJRAI says:


  43. tham rai says:

    can u put mre information
    coz m reli intrested in dis
    and nw i feel like to save our pride bein kirati 🙂

  44. Dev Chamling says:

    Dear Raju Rai,
    Your effort regarding kirati language and script is really very appreciable. But the script you have posted here seems to be limbu or more precisely is Sirijonga Lipi. I have found another kind of script which is also called Kirati Script (usually used for writing Bantawa as Mr. Ansuman Panday, who uploaded the script in the net suggested. So I got confused that which one is the real Kirati Rai script. Would you please clarify?
    Yours sincerely,
    Dev Chamling.

  45. Nambung Hang Bantwa Rai says:

    9lakh Kirati haru Sarba Partham Chaina ko Uttari Desh Mongol Ma Bhayeko Ho Tes Bela Pirthivi ko Utpati Bhai sakeko Thiyo Jun Mangolma sarba Partham Paruhang Ra Sumnima Ko Utpati Bhayo Ra Uha Harukai Santan Haru FailaDai Jada Kohi santan Japan Puge Japanis Bhaye Kohi Thailand Puge Thailandi Bhaye Kohi Chaina Puge Chainis Bhaye Ra Hami Kirati Haru Nepal ko Solu Kumbu Jilla ko Kombu Ma Aai Basiyo kirati Khambu Bhaiyo hai Kirawa 6a.

  46. Nambung Hang Bantwa Rai says:

    Tasartha :- Paru Hang Ko Santan, Kirati Ko Desh, 9lakha Kirati Haru Ko Eutai Bhesha.

  47. Nambung Hang Bantwa Rai says:

    Cholmu Lungma Bisho Ko 6ana, Sagarmatha Bhanera Nabhana,, Kirat yekata, Ojhelma Nabasa Paru Hangko 6a,,

  48. Nambung Hang Bantwa Rai says:

    Yo mathiko Bhanai Haru Nepal Rastrya Kirat Rai Yekata Party Ka Baristhha Neta Tatha Kendriya Adha6e Comrade:- Nambung Hang Bantwa Rai Ko Ho.

  49. Nambung Hang Bantwa Rai says:

    Uthau 9lakh Kirawa 6a Hindu Bad Ko Sanjal Harulai Masnako Lagi.
    Feri Aaudai6 Kirati Sasan Nepalma Puna Nirman Hudai6a Chaudandi Kirati Darbar.

  50. Dear brothers and sisters,
    I am from darjeeling but have been working as a teacher in kathmandu for the last 20 years or so ( currently, vice-principal ). I am a Khaling rai with a chamling wife, married for 26 years. She is also a primary nepali teacher. We have a daughter (26) and son (11).
    The focal point of my discussion is “Why have we been following certain Hindu customs and certain Kirati customs simultaneously ?”. My wife, who most of the time worships hindu deities, says I am not religious and spiritual and I argue and tell her that we worship our ancestors and are not necessarily bound hard and fast by certain hindu norms, which is the case with most other hindus. Yes, we do have our “tin chulo dhunga” in our “mool ghar” back home. Even the “bijuwa” told me that the three stones represent “Pakalung, Merkhalung and Chembalung” which translates to “Brahma, Bishnu and Maheshwor” or something like fupu, baje-boju and so forth – however, there is a hindu connection there. Nauran, Bhat Khuwaii takes a hindu turn when we initiate our children and we need a bijuwa when we perform our last rites and “chinta”.
    My son is young and he questions me about our identity and customs and language and culture; my daughter quizzes me whether we are hindu or kirati whenever she fills in college or various other forms. I am in a dilemma as to what to hand down to my children so that we can keep our culture alive. I have attended hundreds of “kirati” funerals here, in dharan, darjeeling and elsewhere and each time, the bijuwa or phedongba has carried out the last rites in different ways ( although there are a few similarities ). So, if our wise and learned priests do that, how can we expect the new generation of kiratis who grow up in Hong Kong, UK, Singapore, Australia and the USA to fully understand, appreciate and follow our tradition and culture and keep it alive.
    Our kirati scholars and intellectuals have to do something substantial and vast and help to clarify and educate our new generation, before we forget who we are and where we came from.

    Would love to hear a well informed insight via email ( Please no vague talk !! )
    A concerned brother
    Bimal Kanta Rai – Khaling

  51. Durga Rumdalee. says:

    Bhanja what a surpraised.n

  52. Awai Raju Rai says:

    Thank you very…just i know this kirat rai familese i,m very happy..i love my kirat culture….

  53. krishna rai says:

    anyone can email me how to say thulung rai bhasa in namaskar please my email is

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